The current building was finished in 1709, and although immense—57 metres (187 ft) long and 50 metres (160 ft) wide—it is actually 30% smaller than its predecessor.Until 1998, it was the world's largest wooden building.This complex preservation project, costing .7 million, involved a restoration team of 15 experts from the National Treasure Repairing Institute in Kyoto.

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The current hands of the statue were made in the Momoyama Period (1568–1615), and the head was made in the Edo period (1615–1867).

The existing Nandaimon (Great South Gate) was constructed at the end of the 12th century based on Song Dynasty style, after the original gate was destroyed by a typhoon during the Heian period.

It has been surpassed by modern structures, such as the Japanese baseball stadium 'Odate Jukai Dome', amongst others.

The Great Buddha statue has been recast several times for various reasons, including earthquake damage.

As the center of power in Japanese Buddhism shifted away from Nara to Mount Hiei and the Tendai sect, and when the capital of Japan moved to Kamakura, Tōdai-ji's role in maintaining authority declined as well.

In later generations, the Vinaya lineage also died out, despite repeated attempts to revive it, thus no more ordination ceremonies take place at Tōdai-ji.

Adjacent villas are today considered part of Tōdai-ji.

Some of these structures are now open to the public.

The original complex also contained two 100 m pagodas, among the tallest structures at the time. The Shōsōin was its storehouse, and now contains many artifacts from the Tenpyo period of Japanese history.